Surveying is an inseparable part of directional drilling. Surveys are recorded at regular intervals while drilling.
Reasons for Taking Surveys. For a directional driller, to successfully drill a well to the specified targets, all that's required is inclination and azimuth.
Software for Traverse Correction – Excel Solution
There are. Survey Calculations. This information is then used to calculate the actual position of the wellbore relative to the surface location. When assuming an idealized well path between the two survey stations, many mathematical models can be used such as.
The upper line segment is defined by inclination and azimuth at upper survey station and the respective values at lower survey station. This is practically used and accepted calculation method among all and deserve to be discussed in detail.
Survey station is the measured depth at which survey is taken. Course length CL is the difference between two survey stations. Minimum Curvature Method. The inclination and azimuth at each survey station define two vectors namely inclination vector lying in the vertical plane and azimuthal vector lying in the horizontal plane ; and both are tangential to the wellbore trajectory. Let's explain the formula's used with an example. Consider inclination and azimuth at these two survey stations.
Determine next set of values?Bearing to Azimuth in Any Spreadsheet
Ratio Factor R. It has no other significance. Closure Distance. But, remembering these formulas is useful in the due course. Newer Post Older Post Home. Subscribe to: Post Comments Atom.A Traverse consists of series of related points or stations, which when connected by angular and linear values form a framework.
The Purpose of a traverse surveys is to control subsequent detail, i. Fixing of specific points to which details can be relates. The accuracy of the control survey must be superior to that of the subsidiary survey.
When a series of connected lines form a closed circuit, i. When the finishing point coincides with the starting point, then it is called as a closed traverse.
These closed traverse surveys have many applications like fixing the boundaries of ponds, forests etc. Present techniques used in traversing using total station as an open traverse. The steps are as described below. GPS pair points are fixed at a convenient distance, approximately about 3 to 5km.
Care has to be taken that the pair of GPS points is fixed at a reliable distance at least 60m is advised for better results and on good monuments. These points are fixed in such a way that they are clearly inter visible and should cater for placing the total station firmly on the GPS stations. Total station is to be checked for its calibration, prism constants for the prisms to be set in the instrument to avoid errors.
Total station is then used to conduct the traverse between the GPS points. This type of traverse ensures that the survey is started from a known pair of points and is closed on known pair of points. Care has to be taken that the last bearing is also taken for correcting the Adjustment.
There are several methods to correct the traverse adjustments. However, in most of the cases Bowditch rule is considered to bethe most reliable. The other methods like transit method, Crandall method, Least Square Methods are used very rarely. The most accurate method which is known as a adjustment correction by the least square method is used when the accuracy required is very high. This method finds itself applicable in the projects like tunnel works and works warranting for a higher the accuracy.
To know more about the software for Traverse Corrections, Please click the links below.
This method is widely used for Closed and open traverses. Open Traverses means that the starting and closing station is fixed with known Co-ordinates. Fixing up of known co-ordinates is generally done by using DGPS. A Traverse is run between these two fixed points and then for errors Adjustments are done. To understand the method of adjustment, it is required to know the concept of vector geometry. The Departures and Latitudes between 2 points are established. These calculations are done for each leg of the traverse until the Last station, and are tabulated.
A Sample Sheet for an Open Traverse. Azimuth : These are the bearings of a Line at a point where the angles are measured From North and Clockwise. These angles need to be calculated or recorded in order to compute the adjustments. Sum of the total Departures and Latitudes will give the Error in closure. This needs to be adjusted. This Error is adjusted by dividing the Error by total Length and then multiplying with the respective distance Leg Length. It may be noted that the same principle is applied even when it is an open traverse, only the difference being that the final known co-ordinates are compared to achieved co-ordinates for establishing the error.
This method is also widely used for Closed and Open Traverses. It is almost similar to Bowditch Method. It is very important to note that since Departures and latitudes are considered as positive, the errors will change their operator. While distributing the error, it is very important to check for the positive and negative errors and accordingly, the errors are distributed.Calculating the bearing between two points on a map is an essential navigation skill for piloting and land orienteering.
In the age of sail, ship's officers who stood a watch were expected to calculate these sorts of equations with look-up tables, rules of thumb and significant amounts of repetition.
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The modern era has made calculating bearings between two coordinates convenient with Excel. Click on cell B1, then enter "LatA" in the drop-down to the left of the formula bar.
Click on cell D1 and enter "LonA" in the drop-down as well. Click on cell B2, then enter "LatB" in the drop-down to the left of the formula bar. Click on cell D2 and enter "LonB" in the drop-down.
You have named four variables, which will be used in an Excel formula. This formula will return the bearing you need to take to go from the coordinates on the first row to the coordinates on the second row.
It will present the bearing as an angle that runs from degrees true north to degrees. The last term of the formula, "6. By : Ken Burnside. Share Share on Facebook. Calculating the angle between two points on the globe is taking a bearing. Get great tech advice delivered to your inbox. Keep your family productive, connected, entertained, and safe. Please enter a valid email.GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.
If nothing happens, download GitHub Desktop and try again. If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. If nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again. To make the long story short, I was looking for a way to calculate coordinates, distance and azimuth in Excel. I checked out several available solutions but they were either incomplete, did not work or results were inaccurate. That is how I ended up developing my own, complete Vincenty's Direct and Inverse formulae implementation.
Excel workbooks contain unprotected source code. In addition, for better change tracking, source code has been placed separately in Vincenty. This file is all what is required to add implemented functions to any other Excel workbook. Calculation results have been validated using test cases generated for 6 range clusters and distance between 10 m and 30, km against Geoscience Australia website:.
For complete test results refer to VincentyTest. Finally, if you find this tool useful please give it a star. This way others will be able to find it more easily. Skip to content. Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. Sign up. Thaddeus Vincenty's Direct and Inverse formulae for geodesic calculations in Excel distance, azimuth, latitude, longitude.
VBA Branch: master. Find file. Sign in Sign up. Go back. Launching Xcode If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. Latest commit Fetching latest commit….Log In. Thanks for jumping in. Can you help me? Does anyone have an idea how to calc the angle always from north? I recently played with it a bit. It has pretty powerful COGO and matrix operations built-in. On the downside, it does not appear to be compatible with other spreadsheet programs. The equation is rather limited in scope, so the only explanation would be that you've flipped N and E, resulting in finding the arccotangent instead of the arctangent.
Fred P. It's the trig functions that make engineering far more interesting than accounting. So what am I missing with that MOD function to give you an azimuth value? You cannot get with 36 and as arithmetic inputs, only or Perhaps you should paste the exact formula as you are using it in your spreadsheet.
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Join Us! By joining you are opting in to receive e-mail. Promoting, selling, recruiting, coursework and thesis posting is forbidden. Students Click Here. Related Projects. I'm a civil engineer, and was playing around with Excel this afternoon when I had a wild hare to come up with a more clever way to calculate the azimuth of a line than I had been using.
Web Exclusive: Calculating the Direction of a Line using Azimuths
Trig by itself won't do it. It's doable, but the method gets pretty complicated. I found the answer by searching the Excel help file for "angle.
I've done this before, but the technique is at the office, I'm at home, and I'm too tired to do it right now. Anyway, please tell me what you think. I would also be interested in other techniques you have used. IRstuff… Well, that's certainly better than what I came up with.
Since I know the hole location and surface elevation, I would like to be able to convert the survey table to XYZ coordinates as well. The question asks for conversion between spherical and cartesian coordinates. This spreadsheet lays out the formulas:. Blue lines are input, black are intermediate calculations, and red are output.
Within the formulas, the values are referred to by the names in the [Parameter] column assigned via the Insert Name Create operation. This makes the geographic azimuth the complement of the mathematical one they sum to 90 degrees. Replacing an angle by its complement in any trig function interchanges it with its "co" partner: sine and cosine are interchanged, tangent and cotangent, secant and cosecant.
Also, in many mathematical systems the "dip" is expressed as an angle from true vertical a co-latitude rather than as an angle from horizontal a latitudeagain causing an interchange of sine and cosine. While this is an old question, the other answers are not appropriate. Converting Distance Measured DepthDip InclinationAzimuth to 3D coordinates depends on how you interpret what is happening between the locations where measurements were taken survey stations.
The standard practice today is "Minimum Curvature" where the assumption is that a circular arc connects each survey location. The relevant portions are:. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. Ask Question. Asked 8 years, 8 months ago. Active 5 years, 4 months ago. Viewed 21k times. Kirk Kuykendall Couldn't you just use them as xyz coordinates anyways?
Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. I have to calculate the azimuth between two points given in latitude and longitude is this fynction correct?
Assuming your formula is correct since I interpret it to the code below without checking itthen here is the code:. Well, even if the formula turns out to be incorrect, at least the code above should give you the idea to start with.
Learn more. Calculate the azimuth between two points given the latitude and longitude are known with VBA Ask Question. Asked 3 years, 8 months ago. Active 3 years, 8 months ago. Viewed times. Degrees WorksheetFunction. Atan2 Cos Application. Radians lat2 - Sin Application. Radians lon2 - lon1Sin Application. Radians lat2 End Function.
Well you tell us if it is correct or not? Is you question about the code or about the validity of the formula you are using? Active Oldest Votes. Sin X2 - Math. Sin Y With Application. Atan2 dX, dY End With End Function Well, even if the formula turns out to be incorrect, at least the code above should give you the idea to start with.
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