Looking in the telescope ielts reading answers

A story is told that around years ago some children were fooling around in an eye glass shop. They noticed that when they placed lenses one on top of the other, they were able to see a considerable distance.

They played around with the concept for a while, experimenting with what happened when they varied the distance between the lenses. Hans Lippershey, the Dutch lens maker who eventually applied for the first telescope patent, credits children as having been his motivation for the invention of the first telescope.

The first telescopes built in the early s were very volvo s60r 2004 specs inventions allowing the user to see around 3-times further than the naked eye.

The tools used in the manufacturing of the first refracting telescope was all Galileo needed to know and within 24 hours he had developed a better one. Whereas the original version had a magnification of 3, the new telescope had a magnification of around Galileo achieved these extraordinary results by figuring out the combination of the positions of the lenses and also by making his own lenses which were of better quality.

Although he originally thought they were stars, the better quality lenses — and some scientific analysis — enabled him to eventually use his telescopes to see the moons of Jupiter. He recognised that a lens was a circular prism and that the separation of colors limited the effectiveness of the telescopes in use at the time.

Newton created a Reflective Telescope, one that used a dish-shaped or parabolic mirror to collect light and concentrate the image before it was visible in the eyepiece. Thus, lenses used for magnification in telescopes were replaced by mirrors. Mirrors have since been the standard for telescopes.

In fact, according to telescope researcher Dr.

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Carl Addams, the basic designs of telescopes have not changed much in the last years. What has changed however, is the way technology has been used to improve them.

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For example, the larger telescopes in the world today are around 10 metres in diameter and the mirrors placed within them are so finely polished that even at the microscopic level there are no scratches or bumps on them at all. To achieve such a flawless surface requires a very expensive process that operates with the utmost precision. The mid s, saw the discovery and production of the Achromatic telescope. This type of telescope differed from previous ones in the way it handled the different wavelengths of light.

The first person who succeeded in making achromatic refracting telescopes seems to have been the Englishman, Chester Moore Hall.It is a staple of not just the capital of the UK, but of British culture in general. It is used by more than 1. It is the London Underground, and it has been around for more than years.

But how did it all start? The idea of an intricate train network running underneath a vibrant and heavily populated city like London might not be such a novelty in contemporary society, but it certainly was one back in the early 19th century when it was first conceived. Five years later, inthe first section of the Metropolitan District Railway now incorporated into the District and Circle lines followed, running from South Kensington to Westminster. Within the first fifty years, much of what is known as Zone 1 of the London Underground system today would be built, all funded by private developers.

Unfortunately for them, none would get the financial returns they had been promised. So foul was the smell in the tunnels that spread under the city that drivers were allowed to grow beards, in hopes that this would protect them from inhaling the billowing smokes. Nevertheless, the line was a smashing success from the very beginning, with more than 11 million passengers in just the first year. The second spate of construction works arrived with the development of electric traction at the end of the 19th century, which meant that trains no longer had to run through shallow tunnels to allow room for the steam produced by the engines to escape.

Instead, new tunnels could now be dug, cutting deeper into the belly of the city. Surprisingly, it would take until for an entirely new line to open again: the Victoria Line provisionally named the Viking Linewhich was followed by the Jubilee Line eleven years later.

Coincidentally, was also the year the first diagram of the iconic Underground map was first presented by Harry Beck.

The London Passenger Transport Board itself was nationalised in The next wave of changes came at the turn of the 21st century, and has continued to unfold well into its second decade: inthe famous Oyster card was introduced-a wireless travel card that can be charged up with the money to be used for single fares or weekly, monthly, and yearly travel tickets. Busking was also legalised the same year.

InLondon Underground achieved its next important milestone, reaching 1 billion passengers per year, and in it was named the best Metro system in Europe. In earlya new Crossrail line named after Queen Elizabeth II was announced, which is due to open in late This will be the first new line in nearly forty years. And the story goes on. So, there you have it. The underground system that every Londoner loves to hate, but without which London never would have become the sort of financial hub and melting pot it is today.There have been a number of changes in telescopes since they were first invented.

He did this by altering the lenses 11 and also constructing lenses Other improvements followed but the most significant step forward, and still a major factor today in telescope design, has been the inclusion of Keywords in Questions. Similar words in Passage. Galileo achieved these extraordinary results by figuring out the combination of the positions of the lenses and also by making his own lenses which were of better quality.

We find the needed information in second paragraph. The words to fill in both blank should be nouns. Thus, l enses used for magnification in telescopes were replaced by mirrors. We can find the needed information in the third paragraph. According to the writer, the first telescope was.

So the answer is B. Look at the other options:. So option A is incorrect. So option C is incorrect. So option D is incorrect. The writer states that Galileo. So the answer is A. This sentence shows that Galileo took 24 hours to make a better refractive telescope. So option B and C are incorrect. The Galileo telescope was better than the first telescope because it.

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Therefore the needed information is in this sentence. So the answer here is C. The writer states that today large telescopes are. For example, the larger telescopes in the world today are around 10 metres in diameter and the mirrors placed within them are so finely polished that even at the microscopic level there are no scratches or bumps on them at all. So the needed information is in this sentence. Option D is not mentioned. Large, powerful telescopes are difficult to build because.

We can assume the answer will be in this paragraph. It relates to option D. So the answer here is D. Option C is not mentioned.

The first telescopes made.Distant as it is, the Moon has been far more accessible to study because astronomers long have been able to take at its surface, first with the naked eye and then with the telescope-both instruments that focus light. Curious investigators long have been fascinated by sound and the way it travels in water.

Investigators were measuring the speed of sound in the air beginning in the mid-seventeenth century, but it was not until that Daniel Colladon, a Swiss physicist, and Charles Sturm, a French mathematician, accurately measured its speed in the water. Using a long tube to listen underwater as da Vinci had suggestedthey recorded how fast the sound of a submerged bell traveled across Lake Geneva.

Their result-1, meters 1, yards per second in the water of 1. What these investigators demonstrated was that water — whether fresh or salt — is an excellent medium for sound, transmitting it almost five times faster than its speed in air.

In andthe British scientist John William Strutt, third Baron Rayleigh, published his two-volume seminal work, The Theory of Sound, often regarded as marking the beginning of the modern study of acoustics.

The recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics in for his successful isolation of the element argon, Lord Rayleigh made key discoveries in the fields of acoustics and optics that are critical to the theory of wave propagation in fluids. Among other things, Lord Rayleigh was the first to describe a sound wave as a mathematical equation the basis of all theoretical work on acoustics and the first to describe how small particles in the atmosphere scatter certain wavelengths of sunlight, a principle that also applies to the behavior of sound waves in water.

A number of factors influence how far sound travels underwater and how long it lasts. For one, particles in seawater can reflect, scatter, and absorb certain frequencies of sound — just as certain wavelengths of light may be reflected, scattered, and absorbed by specific types of particles in the atmosphere. Seawater absorbs 30 times the amount of sound absorbed by distilled water, with specific chemicals such as magnesium sulfate and boric acid damping out certain frequencies of sound.

Researchers also learned that low-frequency sounds, whose long wavelengths generally pass over tiny particles, tend to travel farther without loss through absorption or scattering. Further work on the effects of salinity, temperature, and pressure on the speed of sound has yielded fascinating insights into the structure of the ocean. Speaking generally, the ocean is divided into horizontal layers in which sound speed is influenced more greatly by temperature in the upper regions and by pressure in the lower depths.

At the surface is a sun-warmed upper layer, the actual temperature and thickness of which varies with the season. At mid-latitudes, this layer tends to be isothermal, that is, the temperature tends to be uniform throughout the layer because the water is well mixed by the action of waves, winds, and convection currents; a sound signal moving down through this layer tends to travel at an almost constant speed.

Next comes a transitional layer called the thermocline, in which temperature drops steadily with depth; as the temperature falls, so does the speed of sound. The U. Navy was quick to appreciate the usefulness of low-frequency sound and the deep sound channel in extending the range at which it could detect submarines. In great secrecy during the s, the U.

The system involved arrays of underwater microphones, called hydrophones, that were placed on the ocean bottom and connected by cables to onshore processing centers. Navy not only could detect submarines in much of the northern hemisphere, it also could distinguish how many propellers a submarine had, whether it was conventional or nuclear, and sometimes even the class of sub.

When Clark looked at the graphic representations of sound, scrolling 24 hours day, every day, he saw the voice patterns of blue, finback, minke, and humpback whales. He also could hear the sounds. The blue whale, for example, can be feet long and weigh as many tons. Yet these animals also are remarkably elusive. Scientists wish to observe blue time and position them on a map.The first telescopes built in the early s were very primitive inventions allowing the user to see around 3-times further than the naked eye.

looking in the telescope ielts reading answers

The tools used in the manufacturing of the first refracting telescope was all Galileo needed to know and within 24 hours he had developed a better one. Galileo achieved these extraordinary results by figuring out the combination of the positions of the lenses and also by making his own lenses which were of better quality.

He recognised that a lens was a circular prism and that the separation of colors limited the effectiveness of the telescopes in use at the time. Thus, lenses used for magnification in telescopes were replaced by mirrors. Mirrors have since been the standard for telescopes. In fact, according to telescope researcher Dr. Carl Addams, the basic designs of telescopes have not changed much in the last years.

For example, the larger telescopes in the world today are around 10 metres in diameter and the mirrors placed within them are so finely polished that even at the microscopic level there are no scratches or bumps on them at all. The mid s, saw the discovery and production of the Achromatic telescope. The first person who succeeded in making achromatic refracting telescopes seems to have been the Englishman, Chester Moore Hall.

Currently the largest telescopes are around eight to ten metres in size. Dr Addams believes that the telescopes of the future will be a gigantic improvement in what is currently considered state-of-the-art. Telescopes that are 20 or 30 metres in diameter are currently being planned, and there has been a suggestion put forward by a European firm that they would like to build a metre telescope. According to the writer, the first telescope was A. The writer states that Galileo A. The Galileo telescope was better than the first telescope because it A.

The writer states that today large telescopes are A. Large, powerful telescopes are difficult to build because A. Questions 6 — 10 Classify the following features as belonging to A. The first telescopes made. Uses a series of lenses one on top of the other. Highly polished lenses. First use of mirrors to collect light. Two pieces of glass stuck together.A story is told that around years ago some children were fooling around in an eye glass shop.

looking in the telescope ielts reading answers

They noticed that when they placed lenses one on top of the other, they were able to see a considerable distance. They played around with the concept for a while, experimenting with what happened when they varied the distance between the lenses. Hans Lippershey, the Dutch lens maker who eventually applied for the first telescope patent, credits children as having been his motivation for the invention of the first telescope.

The first telescopes built in the early s were very primitive inventions allowing the user to see around 3-times further than the naked eye. The tools used in the manufacturing of the first refracting telescope was all Galileo needed to know and within 24 hours he had developed a better one.

Whereas the original version had a magnification of 3, the new telescope had a magnification of around Galileo achieved these extraordinary results by figuring out the combination of the positions of the lenses and also by making his own lenses which were of better quality.

Although he originally thought they were stars, the better quality lenses — and some scientific analysis — enabled him to eventually use his telescopes to see the moons of Jupiter. He recognised that a lens was a circular prism and that the separation of colors limited the effectiveness of the telescopes in use at the time. Newton created a Reflective Telescope, one that used a dish-shaped or parabolic mirror to collect light and concentrate the image before it was visible in the eyepiece.

Thus, lenses used for magnification in telescopes were replaced by mirrors. Mirrors have since been the standard for telescopes. In fact, according to telescope researcher Dr. Carl Addams, the basic designs of telescopes have not changed much in the last years. What has changed however, is the way technology has been used to improve them. For example, the larger telescopes in the world today are around 10 metres in diameter and the mirrors placed within them are so finely polished that even at the microscopic level there are no scratches or bumps on them at all.

To achieve such a flawless surface requires a very expensive process that operates with the utmost precision. The mid s, saw the discovery and production of the Achromatic telescope. This type of telescope differed from previous ones in the way it handled the different wavelengths of light. The first person who succeeded in making achromatic refracting telescopes seems to have been the Englishman, Chester Moore Hall. Achromatic lenses bring two wavelengths — typically red and blue — into focus in the same plane.

Makers of achromatic telescopes had difficulty locating disks of flint glass of suitable purity needed to construct them. In the late s, prizes were offered by the French Academy of Sciences for any chemist or glass-manufacturer that could create perfect discs of optical flint glass however, no one was able to provide a large disk of suitable purity and clarity.

Currently the largest telescopes are around eight to ten metres in size. These extremely expensive and sophisticated pieces of equipment are located primarily throughout Europe and America.

Dr Addams believes that the telescopes of the future will be a gigantic improvement in what is currently considered state-of-the-art. Telescopes that are 20 or 30 metres in diameter are currently being planned, and there has been a suggestion put forward by a European firm that they would like to build a metre telescope. The engineering and technology required to build such a flawless reflective surface is most impressive. The intense rate of change in the world gives rise to numerous new products — many of them electronic.William Henry Perkin.

The History of The Tortoise. Passage for the answer of is there anybody out there. The question of whether we are alone in the Universe has haunted humanity for centuries, but we may now stand poised on the brink of the answer to that question, as we search for radio signals from other intelligent civilizations.

This search is often known by the acronym SETI [search for extraterrestrial intelligence], is a difficult one.

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Although groups around the world have been searching intermittently for three decades, it is only now that we have reached the level of technology where we can make a determined attempt to search all nearby stars for any sign of life. A The primary reason for the search is basic curiosity — the same curiosity about the natural world that drives all pure science. We want to know whether we are alone in the Universe. We want to know whether life evolves naturally if given the right conditions, or whether there is something very special about the Earth to have fostered the variety of life forms that we see around us on the planet.

The simple detection of a radio signal will be sufficient to answer this most basic of all questions. In this sense, SETI is another cog in the machinery of pure science which is continually pushing out the horizon of our knowledge. However, there are other reasons for being interested in whether life exists elsewhere. For example, we have had civilization on Earth for perhaps only a few thousand years, and the threats of nuclear war and pollution over the last few decades have told us that our survival may be tenuous.

Will we last another two thousand years or will we wipe ourselves out? Since the lifetime of a planet like ours is several billion years, we can expect that if other civilizations do survive in our galaxy, their ages will range from zero to several billion years. The mere existence of such a civilization will tell of that long-term survival is possible, and gives us some cause for optimism. List of Headings I. Seeking the transmission of radio signals from planets II. Appropriate responses to signals from other civilizations III.

Assumptions underlying the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence V. Reasons for the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence VI. Knowledge of extra-terrestrial life forms VII. Likelihood of life on other planets. What is the life expectancy of Earth? What kind of signals from other intelligent civilizations are SETI scientists searching for? Questions Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 49? Alien civilizations may be able to help the human race to overcome serious problems SETI scientists are trying to find a life form that resembles humans in many ways.

looking in the telescope ielts reading answers

The Americans and Australians have co-operated on joint research projects. So far SETI scientists have picked up radio signals from several stars. If a signal from outer space is received, it will be important to respond promptly.

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. We use cookies to enhance your site experience. Accept X. Swipe left and right on the table. It turns out that, for a given amount of transmitted power, radio waves in the frequency range to MHz travel the greatest distance.


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